Wednesday, September 24, 2008


Nadine gordimer needs no introduction.During a short visit to Mumbai,Gordimer chose to introduce herself
to her audience via  a short story about a little girl who details the immense sufffering and struggle of her  life
.Gordimer ,small and elegant,suddenly transformed into her character,lending it an immediate visual impact
that few authors can.

Responding to questions from the audience ,Gordimer said that she regarded writer's like "Chekov,Tolstoy and
Dostoeyvsky as her professors".Of Indian authors ,she said that she was struck by the works of Nayanthara
Sahgal and of course Salman Rushdie.Amitav Ghosh for his wonderful books on the opium wars and Shashi 

Monday, September 22, 2008


"Save the Earth" is the slogan of the day.The whole world heard this call during the "Earth Summit-1992" held at Rio city in Argentina.Save the Earth from what? was the question asked by the people.Save the Earth from the dangers of destruction,Pollution,Deforestation,and killing of Wildlife.The future of Earth was dark,it seems.

Today the earth is not like as it was before hundred years ago.Advancements of Science and Technology in all walks of life have simultaneously disturbed the balance of the nature.For example,use of chemicals and fertilizers has polluted the land and water.But we are not being able to find a solution.All the livings things on earth are dependant on water.One can live without food for days but not without water.If the land and water are polluted with chemicals,it will cause many health problems for all men.

Secondly,the forests are destroyed and the trees are felled throughout the world by people.Forests are the source of rain.They are also essential for the prevention of soil erosion.Moreover the Deforestation leads to the loss of shelter for animals and also causes Global Warming.Thus the disturbance in the order of nature creates many interlinked problems.

Another serious problem is the pollution of air and atmosphere.The gases released from the factories pollute the atmosphere.Since the people inhale impure air,the fall sick and get all types of diseases.Apart from this the gases change the composition of the air in  the atmosphere.For example,holes have been made in the ozone layer covering the earth.These holes may permit infra light rays into the land.

What are the ways that we can do to save the earth from these risks?.We should preserve our forests.We should plant more trees and saplings in our society.The air and water should not be polluted.Avoid unnecessary travel by vehicles.The gases released from factories and industries should be filtered.The Industrial wastes should not be allowed to reach the sea.Man should not exploit natural resources,instead they should learn to use it economically.For example all the petroleum resources will be exhausted by 2050.So we must act before it is too late.If we do not act now,the world will not be a fit place for the future generation to live.These problems are because of us.The solution to all these problems is also in our hands.It is up to us to "Save The Earth".

Wednesday, September 3, 2008



The Production possibility curve represents the supply side in international trade. It shows the various alternative combinations of the two commodities that a country can produce more efficiently by fully utilizing the factors of production with the available technology. It represents the demand side in international trade. A commodity difference curve shows the various combinations of two commodities which yield the same satisfaction to a community.


2. The Offer Curve


Another important tool in international economics is the offer curve or reciprocal demand curve.The offer curve of a country returns the relative commodity price at which trade takes place.It shows various quantities of its exportable commodity.A country is willing to exchange for an importable commodity at various international prices.


3. The Trade Indifference Curve


It is a technique used to show the import of  trade on consumption output and gains from trade. A trade indifference curve shows changes in domestic production and consumption as well as in real income from shifts in terms of trade and volume of trade.